UGA Extension publications offer free, research-based information to Georgians on a variety of topics including agriculture, the environment, families, food, lawn and garden, and youth. The publications below are based on agricultural and applied economics related topics.

Cover Crop Cost-Share Program Payments. This publication discusses the effectiveness and challenges of current cost-share programs in encouraging cover crop adoption and important factors to consider for policymakers when deciding on the measures that can be implemented to encourage further implementation of sustainability measures in agricultural production. 

Upland Cotton Marketing Using MAL and LDP: Which Option is Better? The Agricultural Act of 2018 (2018 U.S. Farm Bill) extended the nonrecourse marketing assistance loan (MAL) and loan deficiency payment (LDP) feature for the 2019 through 2023 crop years for upland cotton. This publication provides examples and a decision tree for choosing between the marketing assistance loan and loan deficiency payment program for cotton.

Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments for Upland Cotton.  The Agricultural Act of 2018 (2018 U.S. Farm Bill) extended the cotton commodity loan programs for the 2019 through 2023 crop years. Cotton commodity loan programs include the marketing assistance loan (MAL) program and the loan deficiency payment (LDP) program. These programs provide cotton producers with alternative marketing tools during periods of low cotton prices. Cotton producers can receive marketing loan benefits in the form of marketing loan gains (MLG), loan deficiency payments (LDP), commodity certificate exchange gains, and forfeiture gains. Producers can participate in the MAL or obtain an LDP on all or part of their production at any time during the loan availability period, from harvest until May 31 of the following calendar year.

Preliminary Changes in Covid-19 Purchasing Habits of Southeastern U.S.  Green Industry Consumers - Historically, plant purchases frequently occur in physical retail centers (e.g. mass merchandisers, garden centers, etc.).  The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in adoption of retail measures to reduce disease transition and spread, including stay-at-home/lock down orders,   retail store closures, limited retail occupancy, and social distancing. Consequently, consumers ability to shop for products in-store were  impacted and opened the opportunity to use non-traditional sales  methods. This report provides a summary of consumers’ perceived plant purchasing behavior in the Southeast U.S.

Preliminary Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Green Industry Sales in the Southeastern U.S. - On January 31, 2020 the Secretary of Health and Human Services declared a public health emergency to deal with the novel COVID-19 virus (HHS, 2020). By March 13, 2020, the concern around COVID-19 had been elevated to a nationwide emergency (FEMA, 2020)  and many states began to implement lockdowns. These lockdowns and the subsequent reactions to COVID-19 have had a profound impact on the Green Industry.

Economic Impact of the Georgia Green Industry, 2018 - The Georgia Green Industry consists of wholesale nursery, greenhouse, turfgrass sod producers, landscape design, construction/maintenance firms and wholesale and retail distribution firms (e.g., garden centers, home stores, mass merchandisers with lawn/garden departments, brokers/rewholesale distribution centers, and allied trade suppliers. As the Georgia Green Industry continues to change and adapt to new market conditions, it is essential to understand the impact of the industry on the state and regional economies. This publication provides the dollar impacts as well as employment associated with the Georgia Green Industry.

Understanding the Commodity Loan Programs for Major Row Crops in Georgia – This publication discusses the marketing assistance loans and loan deficiency payments available to Georgia row crop producers under the circumstance of low commodity prices. (Yangxuan Liu, Anukul Bhattarai, and Mark Welch, March 2020). 

Hemp Budget for CBD Production in Georgia - With the passage of the 2018 Farm bill, hemp has been removed from the list of Schedule 1 substances. In addition to this rescheduling, the bill also called on the nation’s land grant universities to research and assess hemp. At the University of Georgia, the Departments of Agricultural & Applied Economics and Horticulture collaborated to develop an enterprise budget for hemp production in Georgia. (Ben Campbell, Adam Rabinowitz, Julie Campbell, Tim Coolong, Jeremy Baudrand, January 24, 2020)

The Hemp Regulatory Environment: A Brief History and Outline of Current U.S. and Georgia Regulations - (Adam Rabinowitz, Julie Campbell, Ben Campbell, January 9, 2020)

Crop and Pasture Land Rental Rates for Georgia Counties - Land rental rates can consist of a significan portion of operating budgets.  (Adam Rabinowitz, Johnson Collins, November 11, 2019)

Updating the Price Loss Coverage (PLC) Payment Yields in the 2018 Farm Bill - The 2018 Farm Bill permits landowners of farms an opportunity to update the PLC payment yield for each covered commodity. This factsheet discusses how to update the Price Loss Coverage (PLC) Payment Yields in the 2018 Farm Bill. The PLC payment yield update is very important because the PLC payment yield is used for calculating the PLC payment. The higher the PLC payment yield on a farm, the higher the PLC payment that farm can potentially receive. (Yangxuan Liu, John Lai, Adam Rabinowitz, October 2019)

Externalities with Establishing Hemp Production/Processing -  As production of hemp increases throughout the Southeast, producers and potential producers need to be aware of issues that may result from establishing production and processing operations.  (Julie Campbell, Ben Campbell, Adam Rabinowitz, August 30, 2019)

Hemp Production Economics: Current Situation in Georgia - Currently,  the University of Georgia does not  have enough information  to develop enterprise  budgets  and  other  economic  tools  for  producers  and  stakeholders  within  the  state. (Ben Campbell, Adam Rabinowitz, Julie Campbell, August 30, 2019)

Awareness and Perceptions of Hemp - As  producers,  extension  agents,  specialists,  and  policy  makers  engage  with  the  public  about  hemp  related  topics,  a  central  issue  is  the  confusion  between  hemp and marijuana.  Though  hemp and marijuana are technically the same species (Cannabis sativa L.), they are significantly  different  from  one  another.  (Adam Rabinowitz, Julie Campbell, Ben Campbell, August 30, 2019)

Consumer Views on Use and Legality of Hemp Based Products - As  hemp  products  gain  traction  and  increase  in  availability  and  use,  the  industry  as  well  as  extension  professionals  need  to  understand  consumer  sentiment  toward  hemp  products.   Currently, hemp production is highly regulated; however, hemp and hemp‐based products are  less regulated.  (Julie Campbell, Adam Rabinowitz, Ben Campbell, August 30, 2019)

Importance of Shrink Minimization in Greenhouse Production - The purpose of this factsheet is to demonstrate the impact shrinkage has on profitability. (Campbell, Ben, July 2019)

Understanding the 2018 Farm Bill Effective Reference Price – The 2018 Farm Bill created a new Effective Reference Price (ERP) to act as an escalator to the statutory reference price (RP) when marketing year average (MYA) prices increase. This publication provides a more detailed discussion about the new ERP that can affect Price Loss Coverage (PLC) and Agriculture Risk Coverage-County (ARC-CO) payments for the five largest row crop commodities (cotton, peanut, corn, soybean, and wheat) produced in Georgia. (Yangxuan Liu, Adam Rabinowitz, John Lai, July 2019, Revised Oct 01, 2019)

Cotton Payments, Disaster Assistance, and Safety Net Update -  This factsheet discusses the Market Facilitation Program, the legislative process related to disaster assistance, seed cotton program updates in the 2018 Farm Bill, choices between ARC/PLC enrollment, and STAX for the seed cotton program. (Don Shurley and Yangxuan Liu, March 2019)

First Look at the Farm Bill Title I for Row Crops: Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018. - The 2018 Farm Bill continues programs for Title I commodities from the 2014 Farm Bill: the Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) program, the Price Loss Coverage (PLC) program, and the Marketing Assistance Loans (MAL) program with Loan Deficiency Payments (LDP). This factsheet identifies some major changes in the new farm bill.  (Yangxuan Liu and Adam Rabinowitz, December 2018)

Implications of Hurricane Michael on the Seed Cotton ARC  - With the hurricane causing tremendous damages to our cotton industry, a lot of counties suffer from tremendous yield losses. This factsheet compares between the Agricultural Risk Coverage (ARC) and Price Loss Coverage (PLC) for this year after Hurricane Michael. We conducted the analysis based on some representative counties in GA. (Yangxuan Liu, October 2018)

What Farmers Need to Know about Crop Insurance and Prevented Planting - Southern Georgia has seen a lot of rain during the month of May. This publication discusses important details about crop insurance and prevented planting claims. There are some frequently asked questions, answers, and links to additional resources. (Rabinowitz, May 2018)

How Generic Base Could Be Treated in the Cottonseed Proposal - One proposal sought by cotton industry leadership to improve cotton’s “safety net” has been to make cottonseed a covered commodity and eligible for PLC as an “Other Oilseed” under the current 2014 farm bill. (Shurley, August 2017)

Recent Cotton Policy Developments - Under the 2014 farm bill, cotton is not a “covered commodity” and not eligible for the ARC and PLC programs. One of the things that the 2014 farm bill did do was to convert the cotton base on a farm to Generic Base. The current farm bill is now in its 4th year and will expire with the 2018 crop year unless extended. (Shurley, July 2017)

Estimated ARC and PLC Payments for 2016 Covered Commodities - The 2014 farm bill eliminated the DCP (Direct and Countercyclical Payment) Program of the 2002 and 2008 farm bills. In the 2014 farm bill, DCP was replaced by ARC (Agricultural Risk Coverage) and PLC (Price Loss Coverage). Read more about the estimated ARC and PLC payments for covered commodities in 2016. (Don Shurley and Adam N. Rabinowitz, July 2017)

Economic Impact of the Georgia Green Industry - The Georgia Green Industry consists of wholesale nursery, greenhouse, turfgrass sod producers, landscape design, construction/maintenance firms and wholesale and retail distribution firms (e.g., garden centers, home stores, mass merchandisers with lawn/garden departments, brokers/rewholesale distribution centers, and allied trade suppliers). (Hodges et al., 2015)